The main objective of a balanced diet – provide the body with the necessary amount of energy and nutrients (nutrients). If it does not, then gradually decreases metabolic rate and the sensation of hunger – the body goes to saving mode. and telling the nutrition food which is good for your health.
But organic wear fabrics stimulates metabolism for more intensive recovery. There is a situation of metabolic stress. Violates the synthesis of hormones, enzymes, new cells.
Substandard hormones and enzymes further disrupt metabolic processes. As a result of reduced immunity, deteriorating health. Man gets easily tired and sleepy, as even a long sleep is not fully recuperate.
– Quantitative and qualitative need for energy and essential nutrients;
– Sources of energy and essential nutrients.
Note: Nutrients – biologically significant chemical elements required by the human or animal to ensure normal life.
The main sources of energy are carbohydrates and fats
The main nutrients include proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The present level of Nutrition requires control not only the amount of energy and essential nutrients.
Equally important is the quality of their components: the usefulness acid composition of fats and amino acid composition of proteins, the optimum ratio of simple and complex carbohydrates. It is also necessary to consider the composition and amount of vitamins and minerals.
The energy value of the diet must comply with energy costs.
For adult men, leading a sedentary lifestyle with a balanced diet, the daily requirement is about 2400 kcal for women – 2000 kcal. Physical exercise increases the demand for energy.
Universal carrier of energy is ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate). All processes in the human body consumes energy only in this form. ATP is produced in the cleavage of carbohydrates and fats. Only rarely used for this purpose proteins.
Protein requirements for an adult is about 12-15% of the total energy value of the diet, which corresponds to about 1.2-1.6 grams per kilogram of body weight per day. Sports increase this need. One gram of protein contains about 4 calories.
In the gastrointestinal tract of the protein is cleaved to the free amino acids are absorbed into the blood and body tissues are then used for the construction of cellular structures, hormones, enzymes.
The amount of free amino acids in the blood is maintained at a constant level by the body. If diet lacking in proteins in order to maintain a constant blood level of amino acids are destroyed tissue.
In particular this applies to passive muscle, which is the main reason for the loss of muscle mass at the wrong weight loss.
Proteins in human nutrition For Balanced Diet
Carbohydrates are divided into monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Structural carbohydrate is a monosaccharide unit which is a ring consisting of 5-6 carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharides three trisaccharides and so on. Mono- and disaccharides are called simple carbohydrates, sugars with a lot of rings – complex carbohydrates.
In food and often contains poly saccharides, which are broken down during digestion monosaccharides and then absorbed into the bloodstream. The main monosaccharides are glucose, galactose, fructose.
The need for fats is 15-20% of the total energy needs. One gram of fat contains 9 calories to. Structural unit of fats are fatty acids. Fatty acids that are not in their chain double bond are called saturated imeyushih one double bond – monounsaturated with multiple double bonds – polyunsaturated.
A balanced diet should be present saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Belongs to a group of steroids, which includes a variety of hormones. Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes are formed from a sex hormone, adrenalin, and vitamin D, bile acids.
Addition of cholesterol, which is produced in the liver, intestine, and various tissues, it is sufficient for all the body’s needs.
Additional dietary cholesterol intake forms its surplus. A certain amount of cholesterol by the liver is removed, the residue is deposited in a depot on the inner walls of the arteries.
Vascular walls become solid, and the lumen narrows blood circulation difficult. This can cause serious cardiovascular diseases.
The daily requirement for cholesterol – less than 300 mg.