Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharides three trisaccharides and so on. Mono- and disaccharides are called simple carbohydrates, sugars with a lot of rings – complex carbohydrates.
In food and often contains poly saccharides, which are broken down during digestion monosaccharides and then absorbed into the bloodstream. The main monosaccharides are glucose, galactose, fructose.
Glucose is found in grape juice and other ripe fruit. Fructose is most sweet fruit, along with glucose. Galactose is found in combination with other carbohydrates, mainly – in legumes.
Fructose is the sweetest of sugars, so it is used in the food industry as a sweetener. Admission fructose is not accompanied by a sharp rise in blood sugar, which is very important for athletes.
By disaccharides include sucrose, lactose and maltose. In the metabolism of disaccharides to monosaccharides cleaved. One molecule of sucrose consists of interconnected molecules of glucose and fructose.
This is the main carbohydrate used by man. It is found in beet, sugar cane. One molecule is composed of linked lactose glucose and galactose molecules.
Lactose present in milk of mammals. One molecule of maltose consists of two interconnected glucose molecules. Maltose is in tubers and roots of some vegetables, seeds.
The polysaccharides include starch, glycogen and dietary fiber. Starch by the enzyme amylase is split to a plurality of molecules of glucose and maltose. It is found in plants.
Glycogen is a polymer of glucose. Main glycogen stores are in the liver (hepatic glycogen) in the muscles (muscle glycogen).
Dietary fiber (fiber, cellulose, pectin) are not a source of nutrients, but they are necessary for the normal functioning of the intestines and microflora. Moreover, dietary fiber is output together with a variety of toxins from the intestine.
In a balanced diet of simple and complex carbohydrates should be represented in equal proportions. In addition, the diet should be present based dietary fiber 10-15 g per 1000 kcal.